# Atoms and Integers

Atoms can have any integer or floating point value.

On first reading you might want to skip this entire section as it is just a deep dive into number limits and accuracy, which is reasonably common to all programming languages, except for 31/63-bit integers and the fact that some other languages have arbitrary precision numbers "baked in", whereas in Phix it is an explicit add-on much like say plain C.

On 32-bit atoms can hold about ±1e+308, with ˜15 decimal digits of accuracy and ±1e-324 being the closest you can get to 0 without actually being 0.

On 64-bit atoms can hold about ±1e+4932, with ˜19 decimal digits of accuracy and ±1e-4951 being the closest you can get to 0 without actually being 0.

In other words, for atoms 32-bit Phix uses the native FPU hardware 64-bit IEEE-754 floats, while 64-bit Phix uses 80-bit ones.

Integers in Phix are limited to the subset that begin with 0b00 or 0b11: on a 32-bit architecture they can contain a single value in the range -1,073,741,824 to +1,073,741,823 (-#40000000 to #3FFFFFFF), with no fractional part, hence technically speaking Phix integers are 31-bit, straddling the "middle half" of the actual hardware range (-2GB..+2GB-1).

On 64-bit the range is -4,611,686,018,427,387,904 to +4,611,686,018,427,387,903 (-#4000000000000000 to #3FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF), which technically speaking makes them 63-bit.

Should you need to hold full 32 (or 64) bit "integers", simply use an atom (trust me, it works).

In other words, for integers Phix uses the standard machine-word-sized CPU registers, always signed, less one bit.

The following values may also prove useful:

Phix does not entertain the idea of unsigned integers: zero less one is -1, not suddenly +4GB (which is what happens in C-based languages).

Likewise storing >=1GB in an integer leads to a clear no-nonsense type check error, telling you the file name and the line number where it went wrong, and, as long as you use the right editor, jumping there automatically, rather than quietly hiding the error.

While you can store any integer value in a variable declared as an atom, the reverse is not true.

Here are some Phix integers and atoms:

Of course if you need to replicate the truncating/wrapping behaviour of C integer maths, for instance in hashing and cryptographic functions, you can easily do that with a bit of inline assembly, and should you need to work with ridiculously large numbers, an arbitrary precision maths library, mpfr, is included with the distribution.

pwa/p2js: JavaScript is inherently a 32-bit system, and the limits above for 32-bit apply, even in 64-bit browsers (not that I have thoroughly tested or researched that).

See also: Number Bases

On first reading you might want to skip this entire section as it is just a deep dive into number limits and accuracy, which is reasonably common to all programming languages, except for 31/63-bit integers and the fact that some other languages have arbitrary precision numbers "baked in", whereas in Phix it is an explicit add-on much like say plain C.

On 32-bit atoms can hold about ±1e+308, with ˜15 decimal digits of accuracy and ±1e-324 being the closest you can get to 0 without actually being 0.

On 64-bit atoms can hold about ±1e+4932, with ˜19 decimal digits of accuracy and ±1e-4951 being the closest you can get to 0 without actually being 0.

In other words, for atoms 32-bit Phix uses the native FPU hardware 64-bit IEEE-754 floats, while 64-bit Phix uses 80-bit ones.

Integers in Phix are limited to the subset that begin with 0b00 or 0b11: on a 32-bit architecture they can contain a single value in the range -1,073,741,824 to +1,073,741,823 (-#40000000 to #3FFFFFFF), with no fractional part, hence technically speaking Phix integers are 31-bit, straddling the "middle half" of the actual hardware range (-2GB..+2GB-1).

On 64-bit the range is -4,611,686,018,427,387,904 to +4,611,686,018,427,387,903 (-#4000000000000000 to #3FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF), which technically speaking makes them 63-bit.

Should you need to hold full 32 (or 64) bit "integers", simply use an atom (trust me, it works).

In other words, for integers Phix uses the standard machine-word-sized CPU registers, always signed, less one bit.

The following values may also prove useful:

printf(1,"maxint %,d (#%x)\n",power(2,machine_bits()-2)-1) printf(1,"minint %,d (#%x)\n",-power(2,machine_bits()-2)) printf(1,"maxatm %,d\n",{power(2,iff(machine_bits()=32?53:64))})where maxatm is the largest integer (with no prior gaps) than can be held exactly in a native atom, above that you need to use mpir/gmp.--32-bit:maxint 1,073,741,823 (#3FFFFFFF) minint -1,073,741,824 (#C0000000) maxatm 9,007,199,254,740,992-- 64-bit:maxint 4,611,686,018,427,387,903 (#3FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF) minint -4,611,686,018,427,387,904 (#C000000000000000) maxatm 18,446,744,073,709,551,616

Phix does not entertain the idea of unsigned integers: zero less one is -1, not suddenly +4GB (which is what happens in C-based languages).

Likewise storing >=1GB in an integer leads to a clear no-nonsense type check error, telling you the file name and the line number where it went wrong, and, as long as you use the right editor, jumping there automatically, rather than quietly hiding the error.

While you can store any integer value in a variable declared as an atom, the reverse is not true.

Here are some Phix integers and atoms:

0Phix stores integer-valued atoms as machine integers (4 or 8 bytes) to save space and improve execution speed. When fractional results occur or numbers get too big, conversion to floating-point happens automatically. As we shall soon see, should that conversion be the wrong thing to do, you are immediately notified in a clear and no-nonsense, human-readable manner.-- (integer)1000-- (integer)98.6-- (atom)-1e60-- (atom)

Of course if you need to replicate the truncating/wrapping behaviour of C integer maths, for instance in hashing and cryptographic functions, you can easily do that with a bit of inline assembly, and should you need to work with ridiculously large numbers, an arbitrary precision maths library, mpfr, is included with the distribution.

pwa/p2js: JavaScript is inherently a 32-bit system, and the limits above for 32-bit apply, even in 64-bit browsers (not that I have thoroughly tested or researched that).

See also: Number Bases